Basic commands for linux server administrators
As you may already know, linux is the most widely used operating system on the hosting server market. Since most linux operating systems are completely free and Linux is very secure and reliable, Linux has gained a lot of popularity and today it is used of many dedicated servers. And if you want to be a linux server administrator or want to know more about some linux commands, here is a list of some basic administrators commands that will help you quickly become self sufficient in Linux server use.
1 – arp
This command manipulates the kernel’s ARP cache in various ways. The primary options are clearing an address mapping entry and manually setting up one. For debugging purposes, the arp program also allows a complete dump of the ARP cache.
2 – df
This command is used to display filesystem information and check how much hard disk space you have on each mounted file system.
3 – du
This command is used to display usage and identify the size of files or programs in directories. It is particularly handy if you are checking system resources. One thing to beware when using this command is that you should not run this command from the root directory or it will actually display size for every file on the entire harddisk.
4 – find
As you can guess, this command is used to find locations of files/directories quickly across entire filesystem.
5 – ifconfig
This command is used to check all network interfaces. Using the plain ifconfig command will show you the details of all the already configured network cards or interfaces. This is a great way to get a check that your network hardware is working properly.
6 – init
You can use this command to change the server bootup on a specific runlevel. This is a useful command, when for instance a servers fails to identify video type, and ends up dropping to the non-graphical boot-up mode.
7 – netstat
This command is used to check network status. Netstat displays all sockets and server connections. And the top few lines are usually very helpful for webserver administrating.
8 – nslookup
You can use this command to check the domain name and IP information of a server
9 – ping
As you can guess, ping is used to ping a server to check if it works properly
10 – ps
This command is used to list all existing processes on the server. It will list every process associated with the specific user running on the server. This is helpful in case you run into problems and need to for instance kill a particular process that is stuck in memory.
11 – route
This command has the same usage as the command netstat -r. Route will display a list of the routing tables for your server.
12 – traceroute
This is a very powerful network command that basically gives the exact route between your machine and a server. It is used to trace the existing network routing for a remote or local server.
13 – w
This command displays details of all users currently on the server. This is a very important tool to track who is on the server and what processes they are running
14 – who
This command will list the names of users currently on the server.